We take a dive into New Hampshire's lakes. It's hard to overstate the importance of the state's lakes and ponds -- for recreation, tourism, the environment. But with several water bodies already posted for cyanobacteria, we look at policies and practices aimed at keeping lakes healthy -- and why they aren't always followed.
- Jason Aube - Shoreland Program Outreach Coordinator with the N.H. DES Wetlands Bureau.
- James F. Haney - Professor with the Department of Biological Sciences, University of New Hampshire. He helped establish the state's first lake-monitoring program in 1978, a statewide volunteer effort that has since spawned other groups of volunteers who observe and report on the health of their local lakes. He also works with the N.H. Agricultural Experiment Station at UNH.
- Andrea LaMoreaux - Vice president of the N.H. Lakes Association.
- David Neils - Chief water pollution biologist and director of the Jody Connor Limnology Center with N.H. DES.
For the latest beach advisories, check N.H. DES and follow @NHDES_Beaches. For guidelines on the state's Shoreland Water Quality Protection Act -- originally called the Comprehensive Shoreland Protection Act -- visit here. And, for a great lake story, involving an illegal dock, eventually dismantled by its owner, listen to this Outside/In episode, "Pier Pressure."
Andrea LaMoreaux, Vice President of the N.H. Lakes Association, said forested land is most beneficial for lakes:
These plants and trees are really good at soaking up any pollution or water run-off off the landscape. But, obviously, we want to be able to be next to the lake too. So, if we're going to have a road, or a property, or a home, we want to try and leave some of those shrubbery things on the shore line. . . at a minimum to soak up some of the pollution or the water that might be coming off the landscape.
James Haney, a professor of biological sciences at UNH, said the best shrubbery is natural shrubbery:
Natural ground covers, shrubs, sapling, and a mature stand of trees: they serve many purposes, and not only just for soaking up or absorbing nutrients, but they provide a lot of shade over the shoreline. [This] actually helps milfoil not get established as readily.
David Neils, the chief water pollution biologist at the N.H. Department of Environmental Services, said storm water is a big concern:
We worry a lot about storm water and everything that's in storm water. Salt is obviously a hot topic we deal with on a regular basis. We see conductivity, which is a measure of the amount of salt in the water, increasing around the state in our lakes, ponds, and rivers.
Neils said conductivity in lakes can come from any chemical that has a charge, but much of it comes from salting the roads during the winter. According to Neils, people apply too much salt, which negatively impacts aquatic life.
According to Neils, cyanobacteria is an algae that can produce a toxin that can be harmful to humans and pets. Although this bacteria has been around lakes for nearly four billion years, it's gained a lot of attention recently. The organism appears as a bloom or blue-green scum on the surface of the water.
Haney said that, worldwide, cyanobacteria outbreaks have increased:
But in response to that, there have been some positive things happening. One of them is that in the Northeast, we have a Northeast Region 1 from the EPA consortium that is developing an antibacterial monitoring program.
Jason Aube, Shoreland Program Outreach Coordinator with the N.H. DES Wetlands Bureau:
We receive a number of complaints every day. . .and we triage these complaints [by] the level of environmental impact they pose.
Aube said that those breaking the rules must pay a fine but further action may be taken:
First and foremost, we look to educate these folks about the importance of the law first, and also bring them into compliance through restoration. . . Always, we seek to have properties restored so that the site meets the minimum standards.
Listeners Deborah and Barbara shared their concerns over the prevalence of violations of the Shoreland Protection Act on Lake Sunapee. Barbara said:
I have lived on Lake Sunapee since 1957 and have closely observed what has been going on below the surface and in the watershed. I can [remember] when the water was so clear the bottom was visible at depths 20-25 feet; submerged rocks were bright, clean, with no algae and there were few water plants. Salamanders, crayfish and sunfish abounded the lake shallows. Now, lake clarity is lousy, those critters are long gone, the lake bottom and rocks are covered with algae.
In 1972, Sunapee built a municipal sewer system to serve the watershed in an effort to protect the lake. However, the towns of New London and Newbury, which share lakeshore, did not built municipal water systems. Local and state regulatory enforcement was essentially non-existent. Deborah said:
I am fortunate to live on Lake Sunapee and have been attached to this lake for over 50 years. The homes that are being built on the lake a re huge. The gardens are lush (probably fertilized) and it has an impact on the lake. The most frustrating is when people come in and pay $1 million or more for a house, and they want a view. So they go ahead and violate the law and pay the fine. Who cares about a few thousand bucks in the grand scheme of things? So storm water runoff is far more damaging. Our lake association (LSPA) has been extremely active but cannot provide enforcement.
Visit this DES webpage for the state's plan for lakes during the Fourth of July.