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Shots - Health News
Wed May 15, 2013
Scientists Clone Human Embryos To Make Stem Cells
Originally published on Thu May 16, 2013 11:57 am
Scientists say they have, for the first time, cloned human embryos capable of producing embryonic stem cells.
The accomplishment is a long-sought step toward harnessing the potential power of embryonic stem cells to treat many human diseases. But the work also raises a host of ethical concerns.
"This is a huge scientific advance," said Dr. George Daley, a Harvard stem cell scientist who wasn't involved in the work. "But it's going to, I think, raise the specter of controversy again."
The controversy arises from several factors. The experiments involve creating and then destroying human embryos for research purposes, which some find morally repugnant. The scientists also used cloning techniques, which raise concerns that the research could lead to the cloning of people.
Ever since human embryonic stem cells were discovered, scientists have had high hopes for them because the cells can morph into any kind of cell in the body. That ability means, in theory, that they could be used eventually to treat all sorts of illnesses, including diabetes, Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and spinal cord injuries.
So for years, scientists have been trying to use cloning techniques to make embryonic stem cells that are essentially a genetic match for patients. The idea is that such a close match would prevent their bodies from rejecting the cells.
"It's been a holy grail that we've been after for years," says Dr. John Gearhart, a stem cell pioneer at the University of Pennsylvania.
But every previous attempt ended in failure or fraud, leading many scientists to wonder if the goal might be impossible to reach.
However, Shoukhrat Mitalipov of the Oregon Health & Science University and his colleagues never gave up. They succeeded in mice and monkeys. And in this week's issue of the journal Cell, Mitalipov's team reports they finally did it in humans.
"I'm very excited," Mitalipov says. "It's a very significant advance."
The researchers first recruited women who were willing to provide eggs for the research. Next, they removed most of the DNA from each egg and replaced the genetic material with DNA from other peoples' skin cells.
Then, after a long search, they finally found the best way to stimulate each egg so that it would develop into an embryo without the need to be fertilized with sperm. The key turned out to be a combination of chemicals and an electric pulse.
"We had to find the perfect combination," Mitalipov says. As it turned out, that perfect combination included something surprising: caffeine.
"The Starbucks experiment, I guess," quipped Daley. "This little change in the cocktail was what really allowed the experiment to really ultimately succeed."
That ingredient, plus other tweaks in the process, including using fresh eggs and determining the optimal stage of each egg's development, Mitalipov says.
The researchers showed that the resulting embryos could develop to a stage where they could produce healthy stem cells containing the genes from the skin cells. They even showed that the stem cells could be turned into other types of cells, including heart cells that in a laboratory dish could pulse like a beating heart.
The work drew immediate criticism because of ethical concerns.
First of all, the Oregon researchers compensated women financially to donate eggs for the experiments — something many in the field have considered ethically questionable.
But beyond that, the creation and destruction of a human embryo is morally repugnant to people who believe an embryo has the same moral standing as a human being.
"This is a case in which one is deliberately setting out to create a human being for the sole purpose of destroying that human being," says Dr. Daniel Sulmasy, a professor of medicine and a bioethicist at the University of Chicago. "I'm of the school that thinks that that's morally wrong no matter how much good could come of it."
Moreover, Mitalipov used the same method that researchers used previously to clone Dolly the sheep. That approach raises the possibility that scientists could try to clone a human being.
"This raises serious problems because it is the first actual human cloning," Sulmasy says. "We already know there are people out there who are itching to be able to be the first to bring a cloned human being to birth. And I think it's going to happen."
But Mitalipov dismisses those concerns. He says the embryos he created aren't the equivalent of a human being because they weren't fertilized naturally. And his experiments with monkeys indicate that it's unlikely that they could ever develop into a healthy baby.
"The procedures we developed actually are very efficient to make stem cells, but it's unlikely that this will be very useful for kind of reproductive cloning," Mitalipov says.
Other researchers agree with him and argue that the possible benefits of the research outweigh the concerns. "Where you can improve [a patient's] quality of life tremendously through this kind of technology, I personally believe that it is ethical to use material like this," Gearhart says.
The scientists acknowledge that it will be years before anyone knows whether this step will actually result in treatments that might help patients. In the meantime, it's clear that the intense debate over embryonic stem cells is far from over.
AUDIE CORNISH, HOST:
From NPR News, this is ALL THINGS CONSIDERED. I'm Audie Cornish.
MELISSA BLOCK, HOST:
And I'm Melissa Block. Scientists are reporting a major breakthrough today. For the first time, they have cloned human embryos that can produce stem cells. It's a long-sought step that's considered crucial for using stem cells to treat diseases. But as NPR's Rob Stein reports, it's also highly controversial.
ROB STEIN, BYLINE: Ever since human embryonic stem cells were discovered, scientists have had high hopes for them. That's because they can turn into any kind of cell in the body. So researchers like John Gearhart, of the University of Pennsylvania, think they could eventually be used to cure all sorts of illnesses.
JOHN GEARHART: Diabetes, various types of neurological diseases, heart disease - it's across the board.
STEIN: But these cells have always been the focus of intense debate. Very early human embryos are destroyed to get them, and some people think that's immoral. Despite that, scientists have been trying to make embryonic stem cells that are perfect genetic matches for patients. Gearhart says that way, their bodies won't reject the cells.
GEARHART: It's been a holy grail that we've been after for years.
STEIN: But year after year, every attempt ended in failure.
GEARHART: Along the way, there were several prominent investigators saying that this could probably never be done.
STEIN: But Shoukhrat Mitalipov, of the Oregon Health and Science University, never gave up. He did it in mice, then he did it in monkeys. And in this week's issue of the journal Cell, Mitalipov describes how he finally did it in humans.
SHOUKHRAT MITALIPOV: In my laboratory, it's actually one of the main interests - is to understand what's the factors that's responsible for this magic transformation of any cells into young, embryo-like cells.
STEIN: To achieve this magic transformation, here's what Mitalipov did. He recruited women who were willing to provide eggs for his research. Then he removed most of the DNA from each egg. Next, he took genes from other people's skin cells, and placed those genes into the eggs. Finally, he searched and searched for just the right way to stimulate each egg so that it would develop into an embryo.
Just the right combination of chemicals, and an electric pulse.
MITALIPOV: We had to find the perfect combination of the electric pulses that they'd need, plus concentration of this chemical.
STEIN: As it turned out, that perfect combination included something surprising: caffeine.
GEORGE DALEY: The Starbucks experiment, I guess.
STEIN: That's George Daley, a leading stem cell scientist at Harvard.
DALEY: The caffeine allowed the success. This little change in the cocktail was what allowed the experiment to really, ultimately succeed.
STEIN: Succeed in generating embryos containing stem cells, healthy embryonic stem cells capable of becoming any kind of cell in the body. He even got them to become heart cells that in a laboratory dish could pulse like a heartbeat.
DALEY: This is a huge scientific advance. Once we learn how to harness their power, they could actually be used in cell replacement therapies.
STEIN: Therapies that could one day treat many diseases. But the work is also drawing a lot of criticism for lots of reasons. First of all, the Oregon researchers compensated women financially to donate eggs for the experiments, something long considered ethically questionable. And even more than that, the research involved creating and destroying embryos.
For people who believe an embryo has the same moral standing as a human being, that's morally repugnant. Daniel Sulmasy is a professor of medicine and bioethics at the University of Chicago.
DANIEL SULMASY: Deliberately creating a human being with the sole purpose of destroying that human being, even for a good purpose, I'm of the school that thinks that that's morally wrong no matter how much good could come of it.
STEIN: And there's even bigger concerns. The techniques Mitalipov used are basically the same that were developed the same as Dolly the sheep. So that raises the specter that they could be used to try to clone a human being. After all, Mitalipov created embryos that reached the same stage of development as embryos that are routinely used to make babies at IVF clinics.
SULMASY: This raises serious problems because it is the first actual human cloning. We already know there are people out there who are itching to be able to be the first to bring a cloned human being to birth. And I think it's going to happen.
STEIN: Now, Mitalipov dismisses those concerns. He says the embryos he created are not the equivalent of a human being because they were not fertilized naturally. And his experiments with monkeys indicate it's unlikely that they could ever develop into a healthy baby.
MITALIPOV: The procedures that we developed actually are very efficient to make stem cells, but it's unlikely that this will be very useful for kind of reproductive cloning.
STEIN: Other researchers agree and stem cell pioneer John Gearhart says the possible benefits of the research outweigh the concerns.
GEARHART: I think that where you have a situation where you have patients that are in need of some type of therapy and none is available, where you can improve their quality of life tremendously through this kind of technology, I personally believe that it is ethical to use material like this.
STEIN: The scientists acknowledge that it will be years before anyone knows whether this step will actually turn into treatments that might help patients. In the meantime, it's clear that the intense debate over embryonic stem cells is far from over. Rob Stein, NPR News. Transcript provided by NPR, Copyright NPR.